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Saturday, 29 December 2018


The Seven Wonders of the Modern World

The 20th century has provided spectacular advances in design, engineering, and construction which have allowed humanity to create an array of monumental structures. And from these, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), with help from experts around the world, selected these wonders: the Empire State building, the Itaipu Dam, the CN Tower, the Panama Canal, the Channel Tunnel, the North Sea Protection Works, and the Golden Gate Bridge.

1.The Empire State Building(USA)

The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. Its name is derived from the nickname for the state of New York. It stood as the world’s tallest building for more than forty years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World Trade Centre’s North Tower was completed in 1972. Following the destruction of the World Trade Centre in 2001, the Empire State Building again became the tallest building in New York City.

2.The Itaipu Dam(Brazil/Paraguay)

Itaipu is a hydroelectric dam on the Parana River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The name “Itaipu” was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. In the Guarani language, Itaipu means “the sound of a stone”.

3.The CN Tower(Canada)

The CN Tower, located in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a communications and tourist tower standing 553.33 metres (1,815.39 ft) tall. It surpassed the height of the Ostankino Tower while still under construction in 1975, becoming the tallest freestanding structure on land in the world. On September 12, 2007, after holding the record for 31 years, the CN tower was surpassed in height by the still under-construction Burj Dubai. It remains the tallest freestanding structure in the Americas and the signature icon of Toronto’s skyline, attracting more than two million international visitors annually.

4.The Panama Canal(Panama)

The Panama Canal is a man-made canal in Panama which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, it had an enormous impact on shipping between the two oceans, replacing the long and treacherous route via the Drake Passage and Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America. A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco via the canal travels 9,500 km (6,000 miles), well under half the 22,500 km (14,000 mi) route around Cape Horn.

5.The Channel Tunnel(United kingdom/France)

The Channel Tunnel, also known as Channel or Eurotunnel, is a 50.5-kilometre (31.4 mi) undersea rail tunnel linking the United Kingdom and France, running beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover, connecting Folkestone, Kent in England to Coquelles near Calais in northern France. It is the second longest undersea tunnel in the world (after Japan’s Seikan Tunnel).

6.The North Sea Protection Works (Netherlands)

Unique in the world, this vast and complex system of dams, floodgates, storm surge barriers and other engineered works literally allows the Netherlands to exist. For centuries, the people of the Netherlands have repeatedly attempted to push back the sea -- only to watch merciless storm surges flood their efforts, since the nation sits below sea level and its land mass is still sinking. The North Sea Protection Works consists of two monumental steps the Dutch took to win their struggle to hold back the sea. Step One -- a 19-mile-long enclosure dam built between 1927 and 1932. The immense dike, 100 yards thick at the waterline, collars the neck of the estuary once known as the Zuiderzee. Step Two was the Delta Project to control the treacherous area where the mouths of the Meuse and Rhine Rivers break into a delta. The crowning touch was the Eastern Schelde Barrier, a two-mile barrier of tell gates slung between massive concrete piers. The gates fall only when storm-waters threaten. The North Sea Protection Works exemplifies humanity’s ability to exist side-by-side with the forces of nature.

7.The Golden Gate Bridge(USA)

The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. As part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County.

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